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Fingerprint identification handbook. Dactyloscopy in forensic science investigation and criminal justice.

Giuliano Andrea 

Minerva Medica 2016

Pagg. 358

Isbn: 9788877118776


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Minerva Medica 2016


This Handbook refers to Dactyloscopy (also called Fingerprint Study or Friction Ridge Study). For more than a century, fingerprints have been useful in a wide range of applications, because they can be used for identification due to fundamental principles: immutability in the course of life (they are permanent) and uniqueness because always different (they are individual). In forensics, there are very large databases that allow the recognition of aliases, traces found at a crime scene and unknown bodies. 
This Handbook is organized into 4 Sections: 1) Toolbox, 2) Known Prints, 3) Latent Prints, 4) Other Fields. The first concerns basic knowledge of the field, i.e., history, anatomy, embryology and the morphology of the friction ridges of the finger, hand and foot. The second concerns personal identification, including print-taking techniques and search procedures. The third concerns latent prints, including the analysis and comparison of traces found at a crime scene. Finally, the fourth concerns different fields such as deceased and missing persons, at¬tempts to counterfeit fingerprints, biometric recognition, cross-border service applica¬tions and the use of fingerprints in archaeology and anthropology. It is divided into 25 Chapters. 
Contents 
SECTION1 
HISTORY 
Introduction 
Prehistoric Hands 
Ancient Marks 
Forerunners 
From Anthropometry to Dactyloscopy 
Italian Way 
Development of Dactyloscopy 
References 
HAND AND SKIN 
Introduction 
Hand
 
Short Anatomical Description 
Touch, Prehension and Movement 
Abnormalities 
Skin 
Hypodermis 
Dermis 
Dermal-Epidermal Layer 
Epidermis 
Glands 
Eccrine Glands 
Apocrine Glands 
Sebaceous Glands 
Variation and Admixture of Residues 
Skin and its States 
Normal, Dry or Oily Skin 
Senile Skin 
Friction Skin 
Ridges and Furrows 
Incipient Ridges 
Pores 
Anatomical Examination vs. Dactyloscopic Examination 
References 
EMBRYOGENESIS OF FRICTION RIDGES 
Introduction 
Development of Friction Ridges 
Configuration of the Friction Ridge Patterns 
References 
FINGERPRINTS 
Introduction 
General Characteristics (Level 1)
 
Ridge Flows 
Incipient Ridges 
Core Area 
Delta Area 
Pattern Types 
Main Classifications 
Arches 
Loops 
Whorls 
Compounds 
Particular Characteristics (Level 2) 
Minutiae 
Main Types 
Evaluation Difficulties 
Microscopic Characteristics (Level 3) 
Poroscopy 
Overview 
Taking and Comparison 
Edgeoscopy 
References 
LOWER PHALANGE PRINTS (LOWER JOINTS) 
Introduction 
Morphological Description
 
Medial Phalange 
Proximal Phalange 
Identification Value 
References 
PALMPRINTS 
Introduction 
Presumptive Negative Aspects 
Overview 
Morphological Description
 
Interdigital Area 
Hypothenar Area 
Thenar Area 
References 
SOLEPRINTS 
Introduction 
Short Anatomical Description 
Soleprints and Footprints 
Overview 
Morphological Description 
Identification Value 
References 
FRICTION RIDGE DISORDERS (POOR QUALITY PRINTS) 
Introduction 
Permanent or Temporary Effects 
Causes
 
Creases of the Skin (White Lines) 
Aging 
Injuries (Scars) 
Occupational Marks 
High Level of Exposure or Contact with Harmful Substances 
Medical Disorders 
Alterations of Sweat Production 
Effects of Medicines and Therapies 
References 
SECTION2 
RECORDING CRIMINAL METHODS 
Introduction 
Identity and Identification 
False Statements (Aliases) 
Recording Systems and their Evolution
 
Photographic Method 
Descriptive Method 
Anthropometric Method 
Dactyloscopic Method 
References 
TAKING KNOWN PRINTS 
Introduction 
Taking by Ink
 
Rolled and Plain Prints 
Taking Lower Phalange Prints 
Taking Palmprints 
Taking Major Case Prints 
Problems 
Taking by Live Scan 
Sensors 
Live Scan Requirements 
Problems 
Related to the Skin Conditions 
Related to the Contact with the Sensor Surface 
Related to the Devices 
Control Programs 
Other Techniques 
Some Older Techniques 
Photographic Method 
Dusting-Tape Method 
Special Chemically-Treated Paper Method 
Replica Method 
Summary Chart 
References 
RECOGNITION BY MANUAL CLASSIFICATIONS 
Introduction 
Ten-Print Classifications
 
Uses and Tools 
Problems 
Five-Print Classifications 
Single-Finger Classifications 
Palmprint Classifications 
Others 
References 
RECOGNITION BY AFIS 
Introduction 
Historical Note 
Databases 
Main Processes
 
Acquisition 
Analysis 
Search (Ten-Print Database) 
Verification (Ten-Print Database) 
Search (Unsolved Latent Database) 
Verification (Unsolved Latent Database) 
Summary 
Pre-Post AFIS 
Problems
 
Direct 
Indirect 
Incidental 
References 
SECTION3 
CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION AND COLLECTION OF EVIDENCE 
Introduction 
Crime Scene Inspection 
Fundamental Principles 
Traces 
Documentation 
References 
LATENT PRINT STATES 
Introduction 
Evidence Prints
 
Faintly Visible Prints 
Visible Prints by Addition 
Visible Prints by Removal 
Visible Prints by Impression 
Latent Prints 
Transferred Prints 
Electronic Capture Prints 
Evidence Prints (Differently Papillary) 
Other Skin Impressions 
Gloved Handprints 
Animal Tracks 
Fabric Textures 
References 
LATENT PRINT DEVELOPMENT 
Introduction 
Development (in general)
 
Optical Techniques
Physical-Chemical Techniques 
Development (in specific) 
Print Development on Live or Dead Human Skin 
Print Development on Nails 
Print Development Techniques and DNA Profiling Techniques 
Age Estimation of Papillary Traces 
References 
LATENT PRINT REVERSED 
Introduction 
Reversal
 
Gray Level Method 
Genuine Dimension 
Tonally Reversed 
Laterally Reversed 
Latent Print States and Reversal 
Faintly Visible Prints 
Visible Prints by Addition 
Visible Prints by Removal 
Visible Prints by Impression 
Latent Prints 
Transferred Prints 
Electronic Capture Prints 
Reversal in relation to Lifting Techniques 
Acetate Adhesive with a Black Cover 
Acetate Adhesive with a White Cover 
Acetate Adhesive with a Transparent Cover 
Black Rubber Adhesive 
White Rubber Adhesive 
Transparent Rubber Adhesive 
Silicone Rubber Compounds 
References 
ANALYSIS 
Introduction 
Approaches 
Requirements 
Analysis Procedures
 
Technique 
Instruments 
Description 
Problems 
Related to the Quality and Quantity of the Traces 
Related to the Accuracy of Reproduction 
References 
COMPARISON 
Introduction 
Comparison Types
 
Comparison Against Elimination Prints 
Comparison Against Known Prints of Suspects 
Comparison Against Known Prints in Databases 
Comparison Procedures 
Requirements Check 
General Examination 
Particular Examination 
Instruments 
Problems 
Related to the Quality and Quantity of the Traces 
Related to the Natural Elasticity of the Skin 
Related to Cases of Only Apparent Similarity 
References 
LATENT PRINT RECOGNITION BY AFIS AND APIS 
Introduction 
Databases 
Main Processes
 
Acquisition 
Analysis 
Search (Ten-Print or Palmprint Database) 
Verification (Ten-Print or Palmprint Database) 
Search (Unsolved Latent Database) 
Verification (Unsolved Latent Database) 
Summary 
Pre-Post AFIS and APIS 
Problems
 
Direct 
Indirect 
Incidental 
Why are some Identifications Missed? 
References 
EVALUATION AND VERIFICATION 
Introduction 
Evaluation
 
Exclusion 
Individualization 
Inconclusive 
Verification 
Court Exhibit 
Approaches

Empirical Standard Approach vs. Holistic Approach 
Proof of Presence Value vs. Proof of Guilt Value 
Guarding Against Error 
Human Factor 
New Technologies Factor 
Procedural Factor 
Concluding Remarks and Possible Safeguards 
References 
SECTION 4 
IDENTIFYING THE DECEASED AND MISSING PERSONS 
Introduction 
Historical Background 
Stages of Death
 
Rigor Mortis 
Putrefaction 
Maceration 
Mummification 
Saponification 
Burned 
Injuries 
Taking Impressions 
Precautionary Warnings 
Techniques 
Direct Methods (without contact) 
Indirect Methods (by contact) 
Indirect Methods (by making a replica) 
Treatment Methods (by restorative solutions) 
Removal Methods (by adapting the skin) 
Electronic Methods (by optical scan) 
Search Procedures 
Official Channel 
Alternative Channel 
Main Processes 
Some Routine Cases 
Mass Disasters 
Processes and DVI Form 
Cooperative Approach and DVI Team 
Missing Persons 
References 
ATTEMPTS TO COUNTERFEIT FINGERPRINTS 
Introduction 
Attempts to Prevent Recognition
 
Expedients Used to Alter the Friction Ridges 
By Sharp or Pointed Tools 
By Abrasions 
By Burns 
By Caustic Substances 
By Maceration 
By Stratification 
By Plastic Surgery 
Overview 
Illegible Fingerprints 
Workable Solutions 
Attempts by Fake Prints 
False Registration 
False Authentication 
False Presence 
Overview 
Workable Solutions 
Attempts by Forged Prints 
Adulteration 
Tampering 
Manipulation 
Overview 
Workable Solutions 
Attempts to Not Place Prints 
References 
BIOMETRIC RECOGNITION 
Introduction 
Historical Background 
Biometrics and Recognition
 
Main Biometric Parameters 
Biometric Fingerprint Recognition 
Processes 
Enrollment Step (Capturing, Extraction and Storage) 
Recognition Step (Matching) 
Errors 
Enrollment Step Errors 
Recognition Step Errors 
Applications 
Public 
Private 
Commercial 
Immigration and Cross-Border Service Applications 
Border Protection 
Passport 
Visa Information System 
Residence Permit 
Eurodac 
Schengen Information System 
Cross-Border Cooperation, Data Exchange (Prüm Decision) and Accreditation (EN ISO/IEC 17025) 
Civilian Fingerprinting Extension 
References 
DACTYLOSCOPY AND ARCHAEOLOGY 
Introduction 
Fields
 
Prehistoric Depictions 
Impressions of Ancient Artifacts
Painting Impressions 
Purposes 
Overview 
Controversies 
References 
DACTYLOSCOPY AND ANTHROPOLOGY 
Introduction 
Fields
 
Pattern Evolution 
Character Frequency 
Symmetry Relationships 
Variation due to Gender or Age 
Inheritability in Populations 
Inheritability in Households 
General Similarities in Identical Twins 
Other Fields 
Mummy Prints 
Primate Prints 
Prints in Nature 
Purposes 
Overview 
Controversies 
References


  • Anno 2016
  • Autore Giuliano Andrea
  • codice isbn 9788877118776
  • Edizione In lingua inglese.
  • Nota Copertina flessibile
  • Pagine 358

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